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Does a Debt Review Order End with the Death of a Consumer? Insights from First Rand Bank v Du Toit N.O and Another


In the recent case of First Rand Bank v Du Toit N.O and Another (1162/2023) [2023] ZAFSHC 498 (18 December 2023), the High Court of South Africa, Free State Division, Bloemfontein, addressed a pivotal question: does a debt review order terminate upon the death of the consumer? This case presents a fascinating intersection of the National Credit Act (NCA), the Administration of Estates Act, and the responsibilities of an executor of a deceased estate.

Key Facts of the Case

  • Background:

    Between February 2015 and June 2019, Andries Smith Myburgh (deceased) entered into three credit agreements with First Rand Bank, secured by mortgage bonds. Due to a breach in repayment terms, a debt review order was granted under the NCA in September 2021.

  • Circumstances Leading to Court:

    The deceased passed away in January 2022, after which the executor of his estate failed to adhere to the debt review order’s terms. This led to First Rand Bank seeking a declaratory order stating that the debt review order terminated upon the deceased’s death and that the deceased’s estate owed the bank a substantial sum.

Court’s Decision

  • Termination of Debt Review Order:

    Judge Daniso held that the debt review order ceased upon the consumer’s death. This decision was rooted in the interpretation of the NCA’s objectives and the definition of a consumer, which does not extend to an executor of an estate (Paragraph 14 & 15).

  • Executor’s Role and Estate’s Debt:

    The court found that an executor does not assume the persona of the deceased but rather administers the estate. Thus, the estate was indeed indebted to the bank, but the requested enforcement actions against the estate’s assets were denied (Paragraph 17 & 18).

Memorable Quote

“The role of an Executor is not to become the persona of the deceased, he remains a separate and distinct personae solely vested with dominium of assets of the deceased estate…” (Paragraph 15).

Implications and Analysis

The judgment clarifies the limits of a debt review order, especially post the debtor’s demise. It underscores that such orders are personal to the debtor and do not bind the executor beyond their role in estate administration. The ruling also emphasizes the sanctity of the Administration of Estates Act in ensuring equitable treatment of all creditors of a deceased estate.


  1. What happens to a debt review order after the debtor’s death?
    • As per this case, a debt review order terminates upon the debtor’s death.
  2. Can a bank enforce a debt against a deceased’s estate directly?
    • While the debt remains enforceable against the estate, direct enforcement actions, like attaching and possessing estate assets, are restricted under the Administration of Estates Act.
  3. What role does an executor play regarding the deceased’s debts?
    • An executor administers the deceased’s estate, which includes paying off debts, but does not personally take on the deceased’s financial obligations or persona.

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